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Dielectric or electrical insulating materials are the substances in which electrostatic field can persist for long times. When a dielectric is placed between the plates of a capacitor and the capacitor is charged, the electric field between the plates polarizes the molecules of the dielectric. This produces concentration of charge on its surface that creates an electric field which is anti parallel to the original field (which has polarized the dielectric). This reduces the electric potential difference between the plates. Considered in reverse, this means that, with a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor, it can hold a larger charge. The extent of this effect depends on the dipole polarizability of molecules of the dielectric, which in turn determines the dielectric constant of the material.
The method for determination of dielectric constants of liquids consists in the successive measurement of capacitance, first in a vacuum, and then when the capacitor is immersed in the liquid under investigation. A cylindrical capacitor has been used here.